Major tribes of Chhattisgarh

Tribes of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh is home to several tribes, each with its own unique culture, customs, traditions, costumes, and eating habits. Some of the major tribes of Chhattisgarh include the Gond Tribe, Baiga Tribe, Abhuj Maria Tribe, Bison Horn Maria Tribe, Muria Tribe, Halba Tribe, and Dhurvaa Tribe.

tribes of Chhattisgarh
tribes of Chhattisgarh

Major tribes of Chhattisgarh – Chhattisgarh ki Pramukh janjatiyan

  1. Gond

Gond is the largest tribe in Chhattisgarh state in terms of population. They are settled in Bastar, Jangir Champa, and Durg districts. The word ‘Gond’ is derived from the Tamil language word ‘Kond’ or ‘Khond’. Its meaning is ‘mountain or mountain’. The Gond tribe does not consider itself Gond. These people prefer to call themselves ‘Koytor’. Their predominance is seen in the inaccessible mountain ranges located in the south of Chhattisgarh. Gonds are still found in their original state in the Bastar district.

2. Korba –

The Korba tribe is a major tribe of Chhattisgarh. People of this tribe are settled in Bilaspur, Surgujia, and Raigarh districts. This group belongs to the Kolerian tribe. The people of this tribe lead their lives like the Munda and Santhal tribes. Among their sub-castes, Dihariya and Pahari Korba are prominent. Hill Korba is also called ‘Benbariya’.

3. Maria –

Maria tribe is settled in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh state. Bhumiyas, Bhuinhaar, and Pando are the main sub-castes of this tribe. The Maria tribe mostly lives in the hilly areas. ‘Bhimsen’ is the main deity of these people.

4. Halwa –

It resides in the Raipur, Bastar, and Durg districts of Chhattisgarh. Among their sub-castes, the main ones are Bastariya, Bhathethia, Chhattisgarh, etc. Marathi’s influence is visible in the spoken language of the Halwa tribe. These people wear the minimum amount of clothes on their bodies. Their customs and traditions are very similar to those of the Hindu caste. This tribe is named ‘Halya’ because of plowing.

5. Korku –

The Korku tribe is found in Raigarh and Jashpur districts. Mowasi, Bwari, Ruma, Nahala, Bodoya, etc. are the main sub-castes of Korku. It is a farming tribe. These farmers also do labor work when needed. Apart from this, these people also collect fruits, roots, and tubers from the forests. In the Korku tribe, land-owning farmers are called ‘Rajkorku’ and the rest are called ‘Yotharia Korku’.

6. Baiga –

Vaiga tribe resides in the Durg and Bilaspur districts of the state. The word ‘Baiga’ means ‘priest’. For this reason, the Baiga people are also called ‘Panda’. They consider ‘Naga Baiga’ as their ancestors.

7. Binjwar –

This tribe lives near Vindhyachal mountain. They live in Bilaspur and Raipur districts. Their main occupation is agriculture. These people worship Vindhya Vasini Devi. These people consider Vindhyavasini’s son ‘Barah Bhai Betkar’ as their ancestor. The great revolutionary and hero of Chhattisgarh, Veer Narayan Singh belonged to this community.

8. Waist –

This tribe lives in the forest areas of Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, Raigarh, Rajnandgaon, Janjgir-Champa, Jashpur, Korea, and Surguja. They consider themselves descendants of God. People of this tribe build hut-like houses. Kamar men wear less clothes while women wear dhoti.

9. Kanwar –

This tribe is also known as Kanwar. This tribe is settled in Bilaspur, Raipur, Raigarh, and Surguja in Chhattisgarh. They trace their origin from the Kauravas of Mahabharata. They are developed or more educated than other tribes of the state. Chhattisgarh is their mother tongue.

10. Khairwar –

This tribe resides in Surguja and Bilaspur districts. This tribe got this name because of the business of storytelling. They use the Chhattisgarhi language. The percentage of literacy among them is low.

11. Chalk –

They are settled in the Raigarh and Jashpur districts of Chhattisgarh. Khadiya of the Munda family is their mother tongue, and they also practice Sadri. They celebrate local festivals like Pusputri and Karma. Literacy is very low in this tribe also.

12. Bhaina –

It is a primitive tribe of the state. Their habitat is in the dense forest area between the Satpura mountain range and the Chhotanagpur plateau in the Bilaspur, Raigarh, Raipur, and Bastar districts.

13. Bhatra –

They live in South India in the Bastar, Dantewada, Kanker, and Raipur districts. The literal meaning of the word ‘Bhatra’ is ‘servant’. Most of the Bhatra people work as village watchmen or domestic servants. They also practice sustainable agriculture. This tribe is divided into three sub-castes – Pit Bhatra, San Bhatra, and Amnait.

14. Birhod –

Birhod means wild species. They live in Raigarh district. These people use Chhattisgarhi as their mother tongue. They have now forgotten the Munda language of their ancestors.

15. Bhunjia –

This is limited to Raipur district only. Their mother tongue is also ‘Bhunjiya’ which is very close to Halbi of Bastar. These people are surrounded by the Gond tribe from all sides. Even after this, these people do not speak the Gondi language.

16. Agaria –

The name of this tribe is related to ‘Agni’. This tribal community is still engaged in the work of melting iron ore. These people consider themselves blacksmiths. The residence area of ​​this tribe in the state is in Bilaspur district. These people use Chhattisgarhi as their mother tongue.

17. Demon –

This tribe resides in the Raigarh and Jashpur districts. These people use ‘Asuri’, the language of the Munda family, in their homes. This tribe is very backward. They have not benefited much from government welfare schemes either. The villages of these people are situated in the hilly areas.

18. Birjia –

They reside in Surguja district. They also speak ‘Sadri’ along with the ‘Birjia’ language of the Munda family. They celebrate festivals like Sarhul, Karma, Fagua, Ramnavmi, etc.

19. Dhanwar –

The word ‘Dhanwar’ is derived from ‘Dhanush’ which means archer. It is considered a branch of Gond or Kanwar. In the state, the residents of this tribe are found in the Bilaspur, Raigarh, and Surguja districts. These people use Chhattisgarhi as their mother tongue.

20. Dhurva –

This tribe is limited to the Bastar and Sukam development blocks of the Bastar district in the state. These people earlier called themselves ‘Parja’. Their mother tongue ‘Parji’ belongs to the Dravidian language family. These people use ‘Halbi’ as their second language.

21. Gadba –

This tribe resides in the Bastar district. People of this tribe earlier used to use ‘Gadba’, the language of the Munda family, but now they have forgotten their original language. Halbi is now their mother tongue.

22. Coal –

Cole belongs to the Mundari species. In Mundari, ‘Kol’ means ‘man’. In the state, this tribe is limited to Surguja district. They use local dialects of Hindi only.

23. Shoulder –

The word ‘Kandh’ originates from the word ‘Konda’ of the Dravidian language, which means hill. These are also called ‘Khond’ or ‘Kond’. These are limited to the Raigarh district only. And the neighbors call them Kondhiya. The Kandhs settled in this area two hundred years ago.

24. Cuckoo –

This tribal group is settled on the banks of the Godavari River in Bastar. People of this tribe also call themselves ‘Dorla’ or ‘Koytar’. This group belongs to the Gond class. Their mother tongue belongs to the Dravidian language family. These people also speak the Halbi language.

25. Majhwar –

They originated from Gond, Munda, and Kanwar’s caste is from hybridity. These are prevalent in Katghora tehsil of Bilaspur district. They use Chhattisgarhi as their mother tongue.

26. Munda –

These are limited to Jagdalpur tehsil of Bastar. He was a traditional singer of the Bastar dynasty. They use Bhatri and Halbi languages. The Mundas of Bastar are Aryan speaking but the Mundas of Raigarh and Jashpur belong to the Austric family.

27. Nagesia –

Their ethnic name is derived from ‘Naag’ (serpent). These people reside in Surguja and Raigarh districts. The people of this tribe have been influenced by the social reform programs of Rajmohini Devi, Sahni Guru, and Gahira Guru. Apart from the dialect of the Munda language family, these people also speak the Chhattisgarhi language.

28. Pando –

They associate themselves with the lineage of Pandavas. His residence is in Surguja and Bilaspur districts. They use Chhattisgarhi as their mother tongue. There is still a lack of education among them.

29. Parja –

This is a branch of Dhurva. This is a tribe residing in Bastar. They use ‘Parji’ as their mother tongue.

30. Saura –

‘Shabar’ mentioned in Sanskrit literature is considered their ancestor. Historical details of cities are available from ancient times. Apart from their mother tongue, they also speak Chhattisgarhi. Their mother tongue belongs to the Munda language family.

31. Saunta –

These are limited to Katghora tehsil of Bilaspur district. ‘Balak Lodha’, son of old Saunta, is considered their ancestor. His mother tongue is Chhattisgarhi.

32. Pardhi –

This tribe resides in the Bastar district. He is a hunter. Their mother tongue is Gondi. Some people also know Halbi and other Aryan languages.

33. Garment –

Pradhan (Pradhan) is a Sanskrit word, which means minister. Pardhans used to be ministers of Gond kings. These are also called ‘Patriya’. They reside in Raipur and Bilaspur districts. Their mother tongue is Gondi which belongs to the Dravidian language family.

34. Oraon –

Oraon tribe is of Dravidian group based on language. The word Oraon is given by non-tribals. These people call themselves ‘Kurukh’. This tribe is found in Chhattisgarh, especially in the Raigarh, Surguja, and Bilaspur districts. People of this tribe are also known by the names Dhangad, Dhanka, Kisan, etc.

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