The natural vegetation of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh state, has been very rich in terms of forests since the beginning. 45 percent of its land area is covered by forests. Here, the expansion of forests is at its maximum in Bastar, Surguja, Raigarh, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts.
Natural vegetation of Chhattisgarh: Prakritik vanaspati of Chhattisgarh
The forests here can be mainly divided into three parts-
1. Reserved Forest
Entry into these types of forests without permission is prohibited. There is a ban on grazing cattle. 38.67 percent of the total forest area of Chhattisgarh state falls in the reserved category.
2. Protected Forest
In such forests, people living nearby or locally are provided the facility of cutting wood, collecting fruits and roots and grazing animals as per their requirement in a controlled manner. 50.70 percent of the total forest area of the state comes under the category of protected forests.
3. Unclassified Forest
Under this, the remaining forests, other than reserved and protected forests, are included. Here, there is freedom in obtaining raw materials for industries. Also, the animals can graze freely. 10.63 percent of the total forest area of the state is included in the category of such forests.
Mainly, the following species of trees are found in the forests here:
Types of trees found in Chhattisgarh:
Sal forests in the state are mainly found in the Bastar district. Sal wood is used to make doors, windows, and other equipment in buildings and sleepers for railways.
Teak trees are also found in large numbers here. Teak is mainly used in the form of timber for making furniture.
Chhattisgarh state is famous all over India for bamboo production. Here, paper is prepared from bamboo pulp. The lives of the people of the Kamar tribe living here depend on bamboo forests. These people earn their living by making bamboo utensils, baskets, and decorative items and selling them in the markets.
Tendu leaf is a major product of the forests of Chhattisgarh state. Tendu leaf is the main base of the beedi industry here. Beeds are made from this.
Many types of trees are found in the forests of the state, whose wood is used locally as firewood. Here these woods are used as firewood for cooking.
Types of forests in Chhattisgarh:
On the basis of the amount of rainfall, temperature difference, and other geographical factors, the following categories of forests are found in Chhattisgarh:
Tropical moist deciduous forest
Such forests are found in those areas where the average annual rainfall is between 100 and 150 cm. Mainly, both fruit products and wood are obtained from these forests. Mainly, trees of sal, teak, bamboo, etc. are brought into these forests.
Besides, fruit trees like Bija, Jamun, Mahua, Jaja, Harra, etc. are also found. Such forests are found mostly in the South Surguja district and the Tapkara range of Jashpur.
This type of forest is also found in Bilaspur, Raipur, Bastar, and Raigarh districts.
Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest
These forests are found in those areas of the state where the average annual rainfall is between 25 and 75 cm. Such forests are mainly found in areas where the amount of rainfall is very low. Leaves, fruits, roots, etc. are obtained from these forests.
At some places, timber is also partially obtained from such forests. The trees mainly found in these forests are Acacia, Kikar, Harg, Palash, Tendu, Shisham, Haldu, Teak, Sirish, etc.
This type of forest is found in Raigarh, Jashpur, North-Eastern Bilaspur, Raipur, and Dhamtari in the state.
summary of natural vegetation of Chhattisgarh
The natural vegetation of Chhattisgarh mainly consists of tropical deciduous forests, with about 44% of the total area of the state covered by forests.
The forests of the state fall under two major forest types: tropical moist deciduous forest and tropical dry deciduous forest.
The important species found in these forests include sal, teak, bamboo, bija, saja, tendu, harra, mahua, and various other horticultural plants and trees.
The state is significantly rich in endemism with respect to many biogeographic features, and it is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including tigers, leopards, gaur, sambhar, chital, nilgai, and wild boar.